Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process that helps understand what, why, how, and when through its four stages. These stages include Planning, Analysis, Design, and Implementation.
Some SDLCs are more specific with more than four stages, but they all guide us through the same process. Following are the questions to ask in each stage:
Planning:
- Why build this system?
- How to structure the project?
Analysis:
- What does the environment look right now?
- Are we covering what we need to do?
- How do we make it better?
- How much money do we need to make this happen?
Design:
- How to use UML?
- How will this system work?
Implementation:
- Build it/Test it

SDLC’s phases work with the help of each other. According to this methodology, the first step while developing a system is to plan. Planning includes technical, economic and organizational feasibilities. Then, the next step is to analyze. This includes an analysis of who, what, where, and when of the project. At the end of this step, you should have a system proposal. Next, to design how the system will work using UML and the last is to implement and build the product. The implementation also includes testing the product. While testing, if any issues occur, then you understand the issue and start over from planning. In real life, some of these phrases happen simultaneously and if there’s an issue, you don’t have to start over.
Advantages: (Existek Blog)
- Simple to use and understand
- Makes management easier
- Works best for small or mid-size projects
- Helps with prioritization
Disadvantages: (Existek Blog)
- A product is complete only when the last step is complete
- Implementation is at the last so it does not find errors in the beginning
- A new requirement can create conflicts with the existing project

The Unified Process
The Unified Process is a 2-dimensional process that includes Phases and Workflows
Unified Modeling Language
Provides a common vocabulary of object-oriented terms and diagramming techniques rich enough to model any systems development project from analysis through implementation.
UML consists of 15 diagrams and 2 major groups
- Structure diagram
- Behavior diagram
The Unified Process maps out when and how to use the various UML techniques for object-oriented analysis and design.
The ultimate goal of all these lifecycles is to complete the project within the scope, time, and cost. The only difference is the way it works. For example, Waterfall keeps everything together. Unless the step is not done, you can not move to the next. It makes sure that you know what you are doing before starting the project. While Agile breaks down the project into small pieces. If you figure something out, then you can move on to the next step and think about the rest later.
The managers who manage that specific project are the primary resources of each methodology. It also includes the developer, business analyst, and other people who play a role in any of the steps in the methodology.
A project must have a start and an end date with a specific goal/purpose. These methodologies start from that. The first step is planning which starts with the timeline planning and the purpose recognition sub-steps. Similarly, with analysis, and design phase. After completing the design phase, according to these methodologies, you are ready to implement the project. If you fail, then start over. You have to complete the implementation phase in order to complete the project. These methodologies are a process that helps Project Managers to keep track of the project and their 3 main goals of cost, time, and scope.
Works Cited
Dennis, Alan, et al. Systems Analysis & Design. Wiley, 2015.
“SDLC Models Explained: Agile, Waterfall, V-Shaped, Iterative, Spiral | Existek Blog.” RSS, 25 Apr. 2018, existek.com/blog/sdlc-models/.
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